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Thread: Penemuan baru: Alkohol dapat mencerdaskan otak


  1. #51
    Junior Member rictric's Avatar
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    Re: Penemuan baru: Alkohol dapat mencerdaskan otak

    weleh weleh baru denger alkohol bisa buat pinter..
    kalo dipake buat luka bisa ngebunuh bakteri, kalo dipake buat otak mungkin bisa ngebunuh bakteri di otak yang buat oon kali ya....

  2. #52
    Senior Contributor dudulz's Avatar
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    Re: Penemuan baru: Alkohol dapat mencerdaskan otak

    Effects of Moderate Alcohol Consumption on the Central Nervous System*Michael J. Eckardt 1 , Sandra E. File 1 , Gian Luigi Gessa 1 , Kathleen A. Grant 1 , Consuelo Guerri 1 , Paula L. Hoffman 1 , Harold Kalant 1 , George F. Koob 1 , Ting-Kai Li 1 , Boris Tabakoff 1 1 Office of Scientific Affairs (M.J.E.), National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, Maryland; Psychopharmacology Research Unit (S.E.F.), University of London, Guys Hospital, Division of Pharmacology, London, United Kingdom; Dipartimento Di Neuroscienze (G.L.G.), Universita'Degli Studi Di Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy; Department of Physiology and Pharmacology (K.A.G.), The Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina; Instituto de Investigaciones Citologicas (C.G.), Valencia, Spain; Department of Pharmacology (P.L.H.), University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, Colorado; Department of Pharmacology (H.K.), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Neuropharmacology (G.F.K.), The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California; Indiana University School of Medicine (T.-K.L.), Indianapolis, Indiana; and Department of Pharmacology (B.T.), University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, Colorado.
    Correspondence to Reprint requests: Boris Tabakoff, Ph.D., Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Campus Box C236, 4200 East Ninth Avenue, Denver, Colorado, 80262.

    * All authors contributed equally to this work.

    This study was supported by the International Life Sciences Institute, European Branch, Brussels, Belgium.


    Copyright 1998 The Research Society on Alcoholism
    KEYWORDS
    Moderate • Ethanol • Brain • Behavior • Biology

    ABSTRACT


    The concept of moderate consumption of ethanol (beverage alcohol) has evolved over time from considering this level of intake to be nonintoxicating and noninjurious, to encompassing levels defined as "statistically" normal in particular populations, and the public health-driven concepts that define moderate drinking as the level corresponding to the lowest overall rate of morbidity or mortality in a population. The various approaches to defining moderate consumption of ethanol provide for a range of intakes that can result in blood ethanol concentrations ranging from 5 to 6 mg/dl, to levels of over 90 mg/dl (i.e., 20 mM). This review summarizes available information regarding the effects of moderate consumption of ethanol on the adult and the developing nervous systems. The metabolism of ethanol in the human is reviewed to allow for proper appreciation of the important variables that interact to influence the level of exposure of the brain to ethanol once ethanol is orally consumed. At the neurochemical level, the moderate consumption of ethanol selectively affects the function of GABA, glutamatergic, serotonergic, dopaminergic, cholinergic, and opioid neuronal systems. Ethanol can affect these systems directly, and/or the interactions between and among these systems become important in the expression of ethanol's actions. The behavioral consequences of ethanol's actions on brain neurochemistry, and the neurochemical effects themselves, are very much dose- and time-related, and the collage of ethanol's actions can change significantly even on the rising and falling phases of the blood ethanol curve. The behavioral effects of moderate ethanol intake can encompass events that the human or other animal can perceive as reinforcing through either positive (e.g., pleasurable, activating) or negative (e.g., anxiolysis, stress reduction) reinforcement mechanisms. Genetic factors and gender play an important role in the metabolism and behavioral actions of ethanol, and doses of ethanol producing pleasurable feelings, activation, and reduction of anxiety in some humans/animals can have aversive, sedative, or no effect in others. Research on the cognitive effects of acute and chronic moderate intake of ethanol is reviewed, and although a number of studies have noted a measurable diminution in neuropsychologic parameters in habitual consumers of moderate amounts of ethanol, others have not found such changes. Recent studies have also noted some positive effects of moderate ethanol consumption on cognitive performance in the aging human. The moderate consumption of ethanol by pregnant women can have significant consequences on the developing nervous system of the fetus. Consumption of ethanol during pregnancy at levels considered to be in the moderate range can generate fetal alcohol effects (behavioral, cognitive anomalies) in the offspring. A number of factors–including gestational period, the periodicity of the mother's drinking, genetic factors, etc.–play important roles in determining the effect of ethanol on the developing central nervous system. A series of recommendations for future research endeavors, at all levels, is included with this review as part of the assessment of the effects of moderate ethanol consumption on the central nervous system


  3. #53
    Senior Contributor dudulz's Avatar
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    Re: Penemuan baru: Alkohol dapat mencerdaskan otak

    Delay in brain growth induced by alcohol in artificially reared rat pups.

    West JR, Hamre KM, Pierce DR.
    The effect of alcohol on body and brain growth of the neonatal rat was examined. An artificial rearing procedure was used to administer a milk formula containing 2.8% alcohol to rat pups during days 4-10 postpartum. Mean blood alcohol levels taken at hourly intervals between feelings at the end of the second day of exposure ranged between 151 and 163 mg/dl. Body growth in both groups of artificially reared pups was similar to that of the suckle control pups. Gross measurements indicated that while alcohol exposure did not arrest body growth, it did arrest several parameters of brain growth. There were deficits in brain weight and volume and in the brain weight to body weight ratio. Furthermore, there were sex-related differences. The brain weight to body weight ratio was significantly decreased in females and there was also a trend toward a greater deficit in brain volume as well. However, deficits in gross measures were not reflected in the development of the hippocampal formation. Areal measurements of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus failed to indicate any differential effects on the growth of the pyramidal and granule cell layers, or their dendritic fields and corresponding Timm-stained sublaminae, due to the alcohol exposure. These data suggest that the blood alcohol concentrations reached in the present study may be near the threshold dose for producing deficits in brain growth, and that the females have a lower threshold than the males.


  4. #54
    Junior Member sleep9999's Avatar
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    Re: Penemuan baru: Alkohol dapat mencerdaskan otak

    Presepsi sy mungkin tergantung kadar alkoholnyai... tiap orang otaknya punya kadar alkohol beda2.... jd klo mo langganan alkohol harus pilih-pilih...

    hehe... emang butuh bimbingan dokter nih... biar nga ngasal... DOK2 sini dong dok... padahal kita kan di FK..
    hati-hati penipuan lewat internet >>

  5. #55
    Member Jay-ME's Avatar
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    Re: Penemuan baru: Alkohol dapat mencerdaskan otak

    Nice Info Dulz.... Alcoholic baik kalo konsumsinya untuk kepentingan kesehatan..... mudah2 semua member jangan jadi Alcoholic yah...
    Jenuh Menjauhlah dari Ragaku...

  6. #56
    Junior Member teacher_06's Avatar
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    Re: Penemuan baru: Alkohol dapat mencerdaskan otak

    Kalau di bukunya Tony Buzan "head strong" dia bilang 1 ml alkohol bisa membunuh 1 juta sel otak.

  7. #57
    Senior Contributor dudulz's Avatar
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    Re: Penemuan baru: Alkohol dapat mencerdaskan otak

    Quote Originally Posted by teacher_06 View Post
    Kalau di bukunya Tony Buzan "head strong" dia bilang 1 ml alkohol bisa membunuh 1 juta sel otak.
    iya, ngomong2 soal membunuh, mau tau gak anggota akatsuki mana yg mati dibunuh dan dibunuh sama sapa?

    juga hubungan orochimaru-sasori ?


  8. #58
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    Re: Penemuan baru: Alkohol dapat mencerdaskan otak

    Quote Originally Posted by dudulz View Post
    iya, ngomong2 soal membunuh, mau tau gak anggota akatsuki mana yg mati dibunuh dan dibunuh sama sapa?

    juga hubungan orochimaru-sasori ?
    bukannya sasori dan orochimaru dulunya 1 team? sebelum akhirnya orochimaru keluar dan sasori tandem dengan deidara
    И у стен бывают уши

  9. #59
    Senior Contributor dudulz's Avatar
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    Re: Penemuan baru: Alkohol dapat mencerdaskan otak

    Quote Originally Posted by anonymous View Post
    bukannya sasori dan orochimaru dulunya 1 team? sebelum akhirnya orochimaru keluar dan sasori tandem dengan deidara
    wala malah dikasi tau, wakakak teacher ngamuk tanggung sndiri hlo bro


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    Re: Penemuan baru: Alkohol dapat mencerdaskan otak

    Quote Originally Posted by Slump View Post
    makasih terjemahannya, tapi jadi mikir kalo sel2 otak tersebut ada yang mati berarti kan berkurang jumlahnya. apa tidak mempengaruhi kemampuan berpikir seseorang?
    gmn dengan merokok? (gak oot kan?..) .. apakah juga mengurangi kemampuan berpikir seseorang?.... thx

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